Adaptive transliteration

Several times, Sāhib Rām creates a new meaning for Persian (or, Arabic) proper names and place names derived from their Sanskrit designation. The city of Herat, for example (located in today’s Afghanistan), is referred to as hīrātta, which Sāhib Rām explaines in the commentary by hīrair āttaḥ „to be furnished with a diamond mine“.


Aḫlāq-e Moḥsenī Vīraratnaśekharaśikhā explanation in commentarytext passage
ʿAlī
alin alatīt[y] alī 1.106
Harāt (the city of Herat)
hīrāttahīrair = vajrākarair ātto = gṛhīta iti hīrātto deśaviśeṣaḥ

hīrāttaḥ
is a place name [derived from]:hīrair āttaḥ, [i.e.] ‘to be furnished with a diamond mine’
1.120
šokr (thanksgiving)śukra/śukla[śukraṃ =] śuklaṃ [=] śuddhaṃ karmety ar­thaḥ
[śukra
means] bright, in the sense of: good deeds
4.2
Afrāsiyāb
Sajyasa-jya: jyayā = ūrvyā samānaḥ
like (sa-)the earth (-jya) [concerning forbearance (=title of the chapter in question)] 
5.20

Sanskritization

The Sassanid ruler Khosrau I Anušīrwān (r. 531-79) representing justice, and his famous minister Borzūya, representing wit and cleverness, appear in many anecdotes of Kāšefī’s mirror. Anušīrwān is given the name Nava-śarin, or, Nūtna-śarin by Sāhib Rām, both meaning „having new arrows“.

Aḫlāq-e Moḥsenī
Vīraratnaśekharaśikhā
text passage
yakī az ḫulafāʾ one of the caliphs
Khala-pū (barn sweeper) 2.26
Dāvūd David Dāmodara
5.8
Nušīravān
Nūtna-śarin (having new arrows) 39.28


Nava-śarin (having new arrows) 39.30

transliteration

Using narratives and storytelling to capture the audience’s attention while communicating main concerns and offering moral advice (pand; naṣīḥat) is a dominant feature of Persian medieval mirrors for Princes. Throughout the Aḫlāq-e Moḥsenī, we find more than 100 anecdotes of various length, featuring figures such as prophets (e.g. Moses), semi-legendary (e.g. Hatim al-Tayy) or historical persons (e.g. the Saljuq ruler Sultan Sanjar).
Sāhib Rām, while adapting these stories, deals with proper names and place names in different ways. He either transliterates them or creates Sanskrit counterparts. Here, we can see some examples of transliterated names:

Aḫlāq-e Moḥsenī
Vīraratnaśekharaśikhā     text passage
Sulṭān Sanǧar
Sañjala 4.35
ʿUmar
Umara 39.24
Madāyin arab. “the Cities”  (i.e. Ktesiphon)Madīna 39.25
yamānī Yemenite yamanīya 39.26
hażrat-e Mūsā Moses Mosa 39.153
banī esrāʿīlthe IsraelitesBhaṇī-Īsraphel 39.192