The Aḫlāq-e Moḥsenī “A handbook of moral quality (aḫlāq) dedicated to Moḥsen” was composed in 907 AH/1501-02 A.D. in Herat by Kamāl al-Dīn Ḥosain “Vāʿeẓ” Kāšefī and was dedicated to Abū al-Moḥsen Mīrzā, son of the Timurid Sulṭān Ḥosain Bāyqarā, hence the Name ‘Moḥsen’ in its title. It circulated widely in the Islamicate world and was disseminated also in Central and South Asia; where it had an impact on later works on statecraft and moral qualities of the ruler, commonly referred to as “mirrors for princes”.
Kāšefīs works, such as Aḫlāq-e Moḥsenī or Anvār-e Soḥeylī, were popular up to the colonial era, e.g. through manuals for learning Persian, such as several Persian Readers. Aḫlāq-e Moḥsenī was also used as an exam test for the Indian Civil Service and was edited and translated into English by G. Keene as Morals of the Beneficent (Hertford 1823 and 1850).
During the regency of Ranbir Singh during the second half of the 19th century, this compendium was translated into Sanskrit under the name of Vīraratnaśekharaśikhā by the Kashmirian scholar Sāhib Rām.