chapters 11-20 compared

In the preamble to the Aḫlāq-e Moḥsenī, Kāšefī makes a distinction between duties owed by the ruler to god (e.g. obedience to the divine will and thanksgiving) and to the population (e.g. establishing social justice). The chapter on justice is the longest section of Kāšefī’s mirror. The theories of state and society expressed therein are mainly based on Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsīs Aḫlāq-e Nāṣerī which itself draws upon Aristotelian concepts of state and society.

11 ʿolovv hemmat high-mindedness udāratā
12 ʿazm determination; firmness dṛḍhaniścayaḥ
13 ǧedd-o ǧahd effort udyantṛbhāvaḥ
14 s̱obāt steadfastness dhairyāvalambanam
15 ʿedālat justice prajānāṃ vyavahārekṣā
16 ʿafv amnesty krodhādisahanam
17 ḥelm clemency pāpyādyupekṣā
18 ḫolq-o refq pleasant disposition hṛdrāga­pūrvakaṃ hasta­vāraṇam
19 šafaqat-o marḥamat compassion and kindness dayā
20 ḫairāt-o mabarrāt charity and good works dānopakāritvam

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